BPH symptoms in men, first signs, causes, treatment, complications adenoma

Prostate adenoma — a benign tumor develops in the stroma or the glandular epithelium of the prostate. In itself, the adenoma is not widespread, but it may be that, in time, degenerate into adenocarcinoma (prostate cancer).

The 30-40% of men older than 50 years, 75-90%, > 65 years change in the form of a proliferation of the glandular tissue of the neck, the bladder.

What is this disease, why it occurs in men after 40 years, what are the first symptoms to the prescribed treatment, consider forward.

What is BPH?


BPH is a benign tumor para urethra of glands located in the urethra. The main symptoms of BPH - a violation of urination due to the gradual compression of the urethra by one or more growing nodes.

If an adenoma is a growth in the body, which provokes a squeezing of the bladder, urethra. This interrupts the current, the urine, the accumulation of residual urine. Also, the men, urinary tract infection, kidney stones, cancer. The growth is painless, it's dangerous for the fast diagnosis of the disease.

Prostate: what is it?

The prostate, also known as the prostate is an organ situated slightly below the bladder. The main purpose of the prostate – specific secret generation, which is part of the semen. The secret of the prostate, determining the consistency of the ejaculate (in particular, contribute to the dilution), contains the vitamins, enzymes, immunoglobulin, zinc ions, etc.

The main functions of the prostate are the following:

  • thinning of semen, allowing the sperm become active, the mobility and, more generally, will be a viable;
  • the development of the secret lies in the composition of enzymes, proteins, fats, hormones, without which the sexual system is not working properly;
  • the emission of the smooth muscle of the prostate can shrink, which ensures the supply of semen to the urethra, and so it happens the ejaculation.


BPH develops and increases gradually. Although this disease occurs mainly among older men, the initial symptoms can turn out 30 to 40 years. It is interesting that the first nodes of the cells are formed en masse, only after a long time begin to grow in size.

Causes of development:

  1. The first group includes reasons lifestyle, which increases the possibility of spread of the prostate. For example, can be a sedentary job or an active mental stress in the absence of the physical. Therefore, the role of regular exercise cannot be stressed enough.
  2. The second group are the objective reasons independent of a person's lifestyle. It has been shown that BPH occurs due to the changed hormonal men. If we consider that these changes will inevitably occur in the elderly, it can be concluded that only a few people are so lucky as to avoid problems with the prostate gland.

A number of factors that contribute to the adenoma. These are the following:

  • Weight (accumulation of adipose tissue promotes the production of female hormones);
  • Hereditary factor;
  • Arteriosclerosis;
  • Abuse, Smoking, alcohol;
  • Inflammatory processes in the kidney, or the urethra;
  • Physical inactivity, poor diet;
  • The high blood pressure.

Kind of benign prostatic hyperplasia

Structure, layout three types of adenomas:

  1. The tumour through the urethra enters the bladder, deforming the internal sphincter and slows down the function.
  2. The tumor grows in the direction of the rectum, urinary bother me a bit, but the loss of contractility of the prostatic urethra does not allow you to completely empty the bladder.
  3. The uniform seal pressure, prostate adenoma, without the growth is not observed no urinary retention, the bladder or voiding. This is the most favorable view of the adenoma.

The symptoms of BPH in men

There are two groups, the symptoms of BPH: obstructive and irritation.

The first group of the BPH symptoms are the following:

  • frequent urination,
  • durable (imperative) urge to urinate,
  • nocturia,
  • incontinence.

The group of obstructive symptoms characteristic of BPH are the following:

  • difficulties when urinating,
  • the delay in the beginning, increase the time of urination,
  • a feeling of incomplete emptying,
  • intermittent urination slow stream.

The first signs to watch for:

  • The first signs of adenoma of the prostate, weak urine flow, frequent urination, which do not always result in emptying of the bladder.
  • Since the tumor is getting serious and the patient has no desire to find out what causes BPH, more than the care how to get rid of disturbing symptoms. Urination will be difficult and that the strain stimulus is to connect the abdominal muscles.
Prostate inflammation

A complication of the prostate, the transition to the severe stage, the symptoms will increase, which may adversely affect the patient's life. In difficult cases, and help only operations, that's why it's so important to pay attention to the symptoms. Even if they repeat 1-2 times, it is mandatory to perform a full inspection.

Compensated in the form

The most typical changes in urination at this stage:

  • common
  • less free
  • not the same intensity as before (stream, urine not characteristic to a parabola, it falls almost vertically).

The further growth of the prostate gland as well as the gain compression of the urethra appears on the following symptoms:

  • more frequent urination day
  • the funding decrease in the amount of urine
  • increase in cases of uncontrollable desire to urinate (so-called mandatory, sneezing),
  • participation in the auxiliary muscles.

Subcompensated stage

Subcompensated – enlarged prostate has reached the level when it started to affect the urinary bladder to withdraw the urine from the body. Violations may occur because of:

  • the liberation of the bladder occurs in parts
  • bladder wall increased in thickness,
  • there is a delay part of the urine,
  • when full, the bladder may occur involuntary release of urine,
  • urine may be cloudy, contains blood.

3. section BPH - decompensated

There is a drop of contractile ability of the bladder to the smallest limit, the growth of the residual urine can be approximately two liters. It is also important to sudden stretching of the bladder, of which the outlines in the form of oval or spherical shape, reaches the navel, in some cases, rises much higher.

Meanwhile, at night, and then later in the day, the urine is frequently or continuously stands out, sometimes involuntary way, the drop full bladder.

Related symptoms of adenoma:

  • weakness,
  • nausea, loss of appetite,
  • constipation,
  • thirst, dry mouth.

Consequences for the men

Complications of BPH:

  • Acute urination. A complication appears in 2 or 3 stages of the disease due to compression of the urethra hypertrophied prostate.
  • Inflammation of the urinary tract. Stagnant processes in the bladder leads to the bacteria. They provoke the development of cystitis, urethritis, pyelonephritis.
  • Urolithiasis. Incomplete emptying of the bladder lead to the appearance that microliths, stone, or mineral deposits. They can cause a blockage of the bladder, urinary retention.
  • Hematuria. The appearance of the urine, the red blood cells, which causes, varicose veins of the bladder neck.


It is no exaggeration to say that the successful diagnosis of BPH is directly dependent on the patient. At the earliest stages namely poll can give you those indicators for which a specialist will be able to suspect the presence of disease.


  1. The doctor performed a digital examination of the prostate.
  2. In order to assess the severity of symptoms of BPH, the patient is asked to complete the diary of urination.
  3. Finally, a study of prostate secretion and smears from the urethra, to eliminate the infectious complications.
  4. Conduct a prostate ultrasound, which is determined by the volume of the prostate, identify rocks in the area are stagnate, estimate the amount of residual urine in the kidneys, urinary tract.

Analysis of the PSA of the prostate adenoma – an important indicator of determining the extent of the disease and the treatment. Such a study is recommended that all people older than 40 years, every year, because to diagnose any disorder of the prostate gland and helps to determine, even cancer of the prostate.

Each gram of benign adenoma of the prostate raises the PSA level of 0.3 ng/l, all grams of cancer of the 3.5 ng/ml, the adenoma of the prostate level of prostate specific antigen almost never rising above 10 ng/ml. If this happens, there is a suspicion that the cancer.

Treatment of BPH

The standard treatment of BPH in men may be that the medication is effective, less invasive. The basic technique – surgical procedure, which all the patients with infravesical obstruction.

Treatment of BPH depending on the stage:

    What is the dangerous inflammation of the prostate
  1. The first stage is often fail the conservative treatment, which, however, does not preclude the symptoms, the acute or frequent urine retention, frequent urination (up to 10 times), the formation of bleeding, the stagnant veins of the bladder or the appearance of the large stones. This, in turn, leads to a forced measure in the form of operational intervention in the absence of residual urine.
  2. In the second section. The gold standard for the help in this section — removal of the adenoma, the surgery using different minimally invasive classical techniques.
  3. In the third section. Here the main task is to ensure good drainage of urine to remove the toxicity. In this case, use percutaneous nephrostomy, cystostomy, etc to normalize the condition of the liver, kidney, circulatory system, and then decide on the possible further surgical treatment.


Drugs, while eliminating the symptoms and manifestations of the disease refers to the gentle methods of therapy allows you to avoid the surgery. How effective the drug is depends on the severity of the adenoma.


  1. Alpha-blockers relax the muscles of the bladder, prostate, normalizes the process of urination.
  2. Inhibitors, 5-alpha-reductase is necessary to reduce the gland cancer of the prostate, to monitor and adjust hormonal background.
  3. Antibiotics are necessary to reduce the activity of pathogenic flora, when the cause of the adenoma is an infection, and rapid reproduction.
  4. Anti-inflammatory medications men's necessary for the quick elimination of the inflammation of the prostate, reduces the acute pain in the prostate adenoma.
  5. Spasm of release people are required, if the pain is still following a strict diet is not retired, not weakened.


Surgical measures are applied, the ineffectiveness of conservative therapy, or when the extent of the disease. An adenoma of the prostate surgery selected absolute indications:

  • The impossible urination;
  • Massive hematuria;
  • The stones in the bladder;
  • Pathological processes of the prostate;
  • The growth of average share of the prostate;
  • Renal failure;
  • A large number of residual urine.

Unplanned (emergency) surgery within days after the establishment of the development of complications: if you have severe bleeding that threatens the patient's life, urinary retention in the acute form.

There are different methods of surgical treatment of prostate adenoma:

    The pills
  • Transurethral resection, or TUR widespread method, because this operation is carried out through the urethra without cuts. However, this can only be applied if the mass of the adenoma 60 g, 150 mg, the residual urine in the bladder. Furthermore, this method may not use in patients with renal insufficiency.
  • Adenomectomy (open prostatectomy) is a popular method for the surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, because the least contraindications. It is best to use the weight of the prostate of more than 40 g, the amount of residual urine 150 ml. Not prevent the operation of, and the various complications of the disease.

Diet adenoma

The power mode is selected for each patient individually, taking into account the degree of neglect of the disease, the patient's general condition and history, but the taste of the patient. But the practice shows, without the regime change, the balance of power is not enough.

Special attention should be given to the foods rich in selenium (Se) , zinc (Zn), which have a positive effect on the tumor, reducing the size of. During the disease the man should be during the day 25 mg zinc, at least 5 µg selenium.

BPH is a serious disease that requires timely treatment, but only under the supervision of a specialist. Not to self-medicate is not allowed here. Thank you, take care of your health!