Urethritis a chronic or acute inflammation of the urethra (the urethra). The disease can occur, infectious or not infectious form.
Treatment the urethritis begins with the identification of its causes. Only after the cause has been established, the doctor select the correct treatment for a particular patient.
Urethritis can be infectious origin. The germs of the disease enter the body through sexual contact or sharing personal hygiene products.
No infectious origin of the disease, suggesting that the urethritis has not received sexual contact. Cause of the disease can be well enough to manage medical devices, damage to the urethra, allergic reactions, etc.
The urethritis symptoms
The first symptoms of urethritis painful urination. Appeal to the professionals, it is advisable at this stage as it is likely to prevent the further spread of inflammation. If you continue to ignore the unpleasant sensation that occurs during urination, the following symptoms become purulent. In some cases, it can be observed inflammation of the meatus.
- A total of urethritis, the inflammation of the whole urethra. The symptoms can be similar to symptoms of prostate.
- Acute urethritis can be determined by the presence of sharp pain, burning sensation when urinating. The lips, the urethra, the colorful, bright, red, swelling. Exhibit strong discharge from the urethra.
- After the acute form of the disease may occur during acute. Discharge from the urethra can be significantly reduced, or completely gone. Urine in acute urethritis becomes transparent. Can be purulent.
- In the absence of timely treatment of urethritis may become chronic. The patient complains of neurotic phenomena. Mild fistula of the urethra.
Urethritis sometimes confused the prostate. Difficult, painful urination is characteristic for both the diseases. That's why self-diagnosis is unacceptable. Furthermore, it does not take any independent action in the treatment of disease.
The patients who decided to see a specialist, it is often very difficult to choose, to decide, to which doctor the best to go: the venereologist or the urologist. The venereal diseases referred to for those who have casual sex are not uncommon. If the patient has a permanent sexual partner, or at the moment, not a partner, you can start to address to the urologist.
Types of urethritis
Urethritis divided into two groups – infectious or not infectious. The latter is induced by two groups of micro-organisms: non-specific (E. coli, Staphylococcus, etc.) as well as individual (provoking sexually transmitted diseases). Let's look at the major infectious urethritis.
The relationship is not specific to the pathogenic bacterial flora of the urethra (in most cases, this happens during sex with a casual partner) may have a bacterial urethritis. The disease often occurs after long-term use of the catheter, the bladder or transurethral endoscopic manipulation. Bacterial urethritis is divided into:
- Primary. Can be acute or chronic form. Acute bacterial urethritis usually occurs without open symptoms not strictly defined incubation time. The urethra is divided, pus, mucus. There is pain when emptying the bladder, burning sensation and itching in the urethra. Possible slight swelling of the external opening, and the mucous membrane of the urethra. Blood in the semen, and ejaculation disorder may occur in cases when the process of a seed tuberculosis of the rear urethra.
- Secondary. Develop the presence of a local inflammatory process in any infectious disease, e.g. pneumonia. Secondary non-specific urethritis in most cases, the protracted, delay. Adult patients complain of pain when urinating. Slight Muco-purulent discharge in the morning. Children, unlike adults, rarely complain of painful urination. There is redness and agglutination of the lips of the external opening of the urethra.
In the treatment of bacterial urethritis, account should be taken of the sensitivity of the pathogen to a given drug, as well as the pathogenesis, aetiology. If urethritis is parallel to cystitis, the doctor prescribes a comprehensive treatment, which includes physical therapy.
If the entire therapy is not sufficiently effective, can be assigned to the local treatment, such as instillation into the urethra with solutions of collargol, silver, etc.
Gonorrhea of urethritis
The pathogen of the disease the gonococci into the body during sexual intercourse. In addition, infection may occur through common goods, e.g. towel.
The treatment of gonorrhea of urethritis is carried out only under the supervision of doctors. Recently treated with cephalosporins, as noted, that the gonococcus has become less susceptible to the traditional penicillin. After the treatment it is necessary to test the patient, the presence of the organism Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The patient is the so-called provocation, which repeat after a certain period of time. Gonorrhea of urethritis letters against no protection. Therefore, there are opportunities for re-infection.
Urethritis caused by fungus
This type of urethritis is very rare. The disease can occur due to the lesions of the urethra of yeast fungi. In most cases, the appearance of the disease the result of prolonged antibacterial therapy. In addition, this type of urethritis can be transmitted by sexual contact. The type of disease can occur almost asymptomatic. Possible, a whitish discharge from the urethra, itching, burning. If the diagnosis of the disease antibiotics the doctor deletes them, then replaces the antifungal drugs.
Most commonly, the disease contributes to the virus, conjunctivitis, which develops the urethra. The virus usually multiply in the epithelial cells of the cervix, in the vagina, the urethra, the conjunctiva. When that happens, the inflammation in the body.
The infection transmission is possible through sexual contact. This type of disease is usually slow. Viral urethritis may be accompanied by joint damage. The treatment there may be some difficulties. The broad-spectrum antibiotics is usually combined with corticosteroid hormones.
This type of urethritis that distinguishes a white foamy discharge from the urethra. It may be a little itching. The development of the disease begins 5-15 days after infection. Chronic Trichomonas urethritis may be complicated prostate of the same type. The complication is observed in 15-20% of cases. To prevent re-infection treatment for both parties. If necessary, repeat the course.
Urethritis in women
Contrary to popular belief that only the male urethritis is a disease, the disease is often found in women. However, given the fact that the urethra of the female body is much shorter than the male urethra inflammation of the female may be asymptomatic, and pain-free. This is the easiest to detect gonococcal urethritis, because it is accompanied by sharp pain, a purulent discharge from the urethra.
If the patient is not addressed to the specialist's time, a cystitis, the inflammation of the bladder. The symptoms of both diseases, so similar to urethritis can be taken the cystitis, because the main symptom, frequent urge to urinate. Causes of urethra inflammation in women may be:
- the sexual infections;
- errors in diet;
- gynecological diseases.
Less common causes of urethritis are the following:
- Medical intervention. When I finally cystoscopy, catheterization is not competent enough your doctor, you may damage the wall of the urethra or introduce infection, which contributes to the development of the disease.
- The exposure.
- Urolithiasis. When the formation of renal crystals, sand pass through the urethra, as these may damage the walls of the urethra.
Urethritis in women than men, the complications. In addition to the cystitis, one of the main complications is getting pyelonephritis. In addition, chronic urethritis in the absence of necessary treatment as a result of the deformation of the urethra, the decrease. Deformation complicates the process of urination.
Treatment of urethritis in women includes 3 main stages:
- The first step is to remove the inflammation of the urethra;
- The second step is to restore the normal vaginal flora, particularly if the urethritis was caused by sex the infection;
- In the third stage take the necessary measures to restore the immune system. Increasing the resistance makes the body less susceptible to infection.
Prevention of urethritis in women's own characteristics:
- all the problems with the chair – constipation, diarrhea;
- should be avoided combination of anal, vaginal sex, casual sex
- visit to the gynecologist should be a regular, regardless of the presence of symptoms.
Diagnosis of urethritis
In the first stage, the students have to determine the cause of the urethritis. You need to find the pathogens. However, if the urethra is not pus, to establish the cause of the disease won't be easy. Extract the pus used, thermal, chemical or physical provocative tests. The easiest is considered a chemical method: the patient takes the medication, and abundant pus. Thermal, mechanical methods, is more difficult and painful. The pus, the mucous membrane of the urethra irritate thin metal probe (a physical method) or thermal effects (heat method).
More modern methods of detection of the pathogens of the disease. Many medical centers, polymerase chain reaction. This research method involves the selection of suitable biological fluid of the patient DNA of the pathogen urethritis.
Patients ever damaged, the pelvic organs may designate an x-ray of the urethra. Using contrast x-rays can detect the defects in the walls of the urethra. In addition, the research is widely used in urethroscopy, in which the urethra is injected, a special optical device.
Treatment of urethritis
In most cases, the treatment of urethritis antibiotics are used. For best results, it is necessary to consider the data on the antibio gram. This means that before the patient appoint antibiotics, the doctor must determine how high the sensitivity of the patient to the drug. Selection of antibiotics a few days after the patient was diagnosed. These days the patient must not be left without medical assistance. The patient is temporarily antibiotics, the penicillin group of broad-spectrum antibiotics. The currently widely used semi-synthetic penicillins. This group of drugs have a greater effect on the pathogen, while resistance to the biological environment. If this group of medicines that have proved effective, the patient can prescribe more effective antibiotics. Maybe the meeting antiseptics to the lavage of the urethra. Gastric lavage should only be performed by professionals.
During the treatment the urethritis, the patient's diet forbids foods that increase the secretion of the mucous membrane of the urethra. These products include hot spices, spices.
We should not forget that the rehabilitation (psychological) after the urethritis you may not want the patient your partner. Often, the detection of urethritis partners unknowingly begin to accuse each other of betrayal. After the patient was diagnosed to visit the doctor can be together. The specialist explained that the partner of the patient, the presence of inflammation of the urethra isn't proof of infidelity men.
The probability of occurrence of the disease can be minimized if you follow some simple rules.
- First and foremost, you should avoid casual relationships.
- The personal hygiene reduces the likelihood of infection.
- The rejection of bad habits: Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption.
- Regular preventive supervision of the urologist.
- Diet: don't abuse the spicy, vinegary, salty food.
- Timely treatment of infectious diseases of the urogenital system.
- To avoid over cooling.
The greatest risk of infection experienced by men who suffer from the inflammation of the pancreas, intestines, gall bladder and other internal organs. The probability that infectious those who often suffer from tonsillitis.